Thursday, August 12, 2010
History of the Abbasid Dinasty - The Period Of Abbasid Dinasty
During this dynasty in power, the pattern of governance that is applied varies in accordance with changes in political, social, and cultural. based on changing patterns of government and politics, historians typically divide the reign of the Abbasid into five periods:
1. First Period (132 H/750 AD - 232 H/847 M)
This period is called the first period of Persian influence. In this period, the Abbasid reign reached its golden ages. Politically, the caliphs really strong character and is a center of political power and religion as well. On the other hand, the prosperity of the community achieve the highest level. This period has also succeeded in preparing the foundation for the development of philosophy and science in Islam. But after this period expires, the Bani Abbas government began to decline in the political field, although the philosophy and science continues to grow. Abbasid dynasty in the first period more emphasis on the development of Islamic civilization and culture rather than area expansion. However many challenges during this period and the political movements that interfere with the stability, both from the Bani Abbas itself or from outside.
2. Second Period (232 H / 847 M - 334 H / 945 AD)
This period is called the first period of Turkish influence. To control the al-Ma'mun kekhalifahannya depend on the support of Tahir, a nobleman in return for residents of Khurasan who was appointed governor of Khorasan (820-822) and Abbasid army generals for all with the promise that this position will be inherited by offspring. Al-Ma'mun and Al-Mu'tasim armed forces that is establishing dea; syakiriyah forces led by local leaders and troops Gilman which consists of buying slaves in Turkey. The important note here is that in its heyday Abbasa children of military support from its own people, during this setback they depend on foreign troops to be in charge of their own people, so that a weak central government. . The days subsequent to the arrival of the Bani Buwaih strength.
3. Third Period (334 H / 945 M - 447 H / 1055 AD)
This period is the period of powers in government Buwaih dynasty Abbasid empire. This period is also called the second period of Persian influence. Abu Syuja 'Buwaih is a Persian nationality of Dailam. Three children: Ali ('Imad al-Daulah), hasan (RUKN al-Daulah), and Ahmad (al-Daulah Mu'izz) is the founder of the dynasty of the Bani Buwaih. Their appearance in the stage of history originated from the Bani Abbas has achieved the position of warlord Ali and Ahmad ibn times in the forces of the Dynasty Dining warrant, but later moved to camps Mardawij. Then the three brothers was mastering the west and southwest Persia, and in the year 945, after the death of General Tuzun (actual ruler of Baghdad) to enter Baghdad and begin Ahmad Bani Buwaih power of the Abbasid caliph.
With the powerful Bani Buwaih, Mu'tazilite flow rose again, particularly in the region of Persia, holding hands with the Shiites. In this period appeared many thinkers Mu'tazilite from Basra that although the flow of their names are not the days of their predecessors who first heyday, leaving a lot of work that can be read until now. Until now people know Mu'tazilite of the works of their opponents, especially the Asy'ariyah. Mu'tazilite figures among the highest of the period of this second resurrection is the al-Qadi Abd al-Jabbar, the successor of the flow of Basra after Abu Ali and Abu Hashim.
4. Fourth Period (447 H/1055 M - 590 H / 1194 AD)
This period was the reign of the Seljuq dynasty Bani Abbasid Caliphate in the government or collectively, the period of Turkish influence the second. Seljuq (Saljuq) ibn Tuqaq was a leader of the Turks who lived in Central Asia tepatnnya Transoxania or Ma Wara 'al-Nahar, or Mavarranahr. Thughril Beg, grandson Saljuq who started the Seljuq appearance in the stage of history. In 429/1037 he was mastering recorded Merv. His rule is increasingly widely from year to year and in 1055 plunged his control over Baghdad.
Tughril died without leaving offspring and replaced by his nephew Alp Arselan Malikshah later replaced his son who was the greatest ruler of the Seljuq dynasty. Now the children of the Seljuq empire in decline before they fade completely in Baghdad in 552 H / 1157 AD In the field of religion, this period was marked by the victory of the Sunnis, particularly with al-Muluk Nidham policy establishing schools that are mentioned by name Madaris Nidhamiyyah. Another thing to note from this period and previous period is the emergence of various dynasties in the Islamic world began describing the loss of the unity of the Islamic world in the political field. Like the Fatimid dynasty was born in Egypt (969) and lasted until the year 1171. In terms of cultural and religious thought, there are various areas with the center itself, each have their own role in the expression of Islam, in accordance with their respective conditions. For example, Andalus and North Africa to develop an art that reached its peak in al-Hambra and character of philosophical thinking denngan Ibn Tufail and Ibn Rushd.
5. Fifth Period (590 H / 1194 M - 656 H / 1258 AD)
This period is the period of Caliph free from the influence of another dynasty, but his power is only effective in the vicinity of Baghdad. After Seljuq, the caliphs are no longer controlled by certain people. However, the country has been divided into many small independent kingdoms. Caliph al-Nasir (1180-1255) which seeks to raise the authority of the Abbasid Caliphate. For that he was seeking support for his position by working closely with a movement of people who worship Ali. From among the craftsmen and traders believe Ali as a patron of the corporation. Members of this movement met regularly, and not infrequently do spiritual exercises under the leadership of a pear. Al-Nasir placing himself as the protector of this movement. Meanwhile, the strength of the Mongol Tartars began to crawl from the east and in the year 656 H H/1258, Hulagu with his troops entered Baghdad and killed the Caliph al-Musta'shim and kill the residents of this city. They looted treasures, to burn books and destroy many buildings. Thus ended the Caliphate of Banu Abbas in Baghdad.