Umar bin Abdul Aziz r.a. (63-110 AH)The 8th Caliph of Dinasty Umayyah
It was midnight in the town of Medina. Most of the townspeople were asleep. Umar bin Khatab r.a. walk go along the streets of the city. He tried not to miss any of his observations. By early morning, this man was tired and decided to rest. Without purpose, there came to him a conversation between mother and daughter from the house near her rest.
"Dear Daughter, mixing dairy milk that you mentioned with the water," his mother said.
'Do not mother. Commander of the believers have made a rule not to sell milk mixed with water, "replied the daughter.
"But many people do it boy, mixing them a little. InsyaAllah Commander of the Faithful did not know it, "said his mother tried to convince her Daughter.
"Mother, Commander of the Faithful may not know it. But, Wed from the Commander of the Faithful would see it, "said the girl refused.
Hearing this conversation, this man dropped his tears. Since the dawn approached, he hasten to the mosque to lead the Fajr prayer. At home, he called his son to come forward and said, "O son of Omar bin Khattab Uthman. Actually last night I heard a privileged conversation. Go ye into somebody's house and investigate his family. "
Uthman ibn 'Umar ibn Khattab carrying out orders that no other father was Umar ibn Khattab, the second Caliph who bear the title Commander of the Faithful. Upon returning from the investigation, he faced his father and heard him say,
"Go and meet them. Lamarlah daughters to become wives. I see InsyaAllah he will give a blessing to you and the child's descendants. Hopefully he can also give offspring that will become the leader of the nation. "
That is, marry Uthman ibn 'Umar ibn Khattab with these girls. From this marriage, Umar ibn Khattab was blessed with a granddaughter named Laila, later known as Umm Uthman. One night after that, Umar dreaming. In his dream he saw a young man of his descendants, named Omar, with a disability because of injuries on the forehead. This led the Muslim youth as he led the Muslims. This dream is told only to his family. When he died, the story remained buried in the family.
At the time of his grandfather Commander of the Faithful Umar bin al Khattab was killed in 644 AD, Ummi Uthman had attended the funeral. Ummi then underwent 12 years of the Caliphate Uthman ibn Affan Ustman until Maserhi murdered in 656. After that, Ummi Uthman also witnessed five years of the Caliphate of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib ra Until finally Muawiyah founded the Umayyad dynasty and ruled.
Substitution of the caliphate system to the dynasty system greatly affect the Nation of Islam at that time. Authorities began to rule in luxury. After a lavish ruler, other diseases began to grow and blossom. The ambition of power and strength, an accumulation of wealth, and corruption color the history of Islam in the Umayyad dynasty. Expanding country, the population increased in number, developing science and technology, but people increasingly yearn ukhuwah brotherhood, justice and simplicity Ali, Uthman, Umar, and Abu Bakr. Rich-poor status began to be seen clearly, the position of officials-people began to be felt. Dhimni disbelieve any resahnya complained, 'We miss Omar, he came here to ask how and our business. He also asked whether there are laws to our disadvantage. We willingly pay taxes regardless of what he requested. Now, we pay taxes out of fear. "
Then his son Yazid bin Muawiyah become his successor. This is the beginning of Muawiyah action havoc Umayyad dynasty that he created himself. Yazid was not a proper amir. Legalized tyranny and the most regretted his actions was to kill the messenger friends and his grandson Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib. Menggenaskan Yazid died three days after he killed Hussein.
However, the son of Yazid, Yazid ibn Muawiyah, is an expert on worship. He realizes his grandfather and his father's mistakes and refused to replace his father. He chose to go and empty throne Umayyad dynasty. Tempers among the children of Umayyad conquest of power. Abdullah bin Zubeir, a friend of the Prophet was nominated to become commander of the believers. However, Marwan bin Hakam delivering cunning, Umayyad children from families Hakam, to fill the vacant position and continue the dynasty system. Marwan bin Hakam led for ten years more and more despotic than Yazid.
Umar bin Abdul Aziz births
At that time, Ummi Uthman married Abdul Aziz bin Marwan. Abdul Aziz was the governor of Egypt in the era of Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan (685-705 AD) who is his brother. Marwan bin Abdul Mallik is a pious, fiqh experts and commentators, as well as a good king apart from the problems inherited by his father's ummah (Marwan bin Hakam) at that time.
From the marriage, was born Umar bin Abdul Aziz. He was born in Halawan, the village located in Egypt, in the year 61 AH. Umar lived in palaces and luxurious environment. While still a small Umar had an accident. Accidentally kicked a stallion so that his forehead was torn to the bone forehead visible. Everyone was panicking and crying, unless Abdul Aziz immediately gasped and smiled. Umar treat minor injuries, he said,
"Cheer thee, O Umm Uthman. Umar bin Khattab InsyaAllah dream come true, he was the son of the Umayyad descent that will fix this nation. "
Umar bin Abdul Aziz demanded of science since he was little. He was in the majlis sentiasa science together with people who are experts in the field of jurisprudence as well as scholars. He has menghafaz al-Quran from a young age. Migrate to Medina to study knowledge. He has studied with several prominent figures such as Imam Malik ibn Anas, Urwah bin Zubair, Abdullah ibn Jaafar, Yusuf bin Abdullah, and so forth. Then he continued his lessons with some well-known figure in Egypt.
During the Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik ruled that he held office gabernur Medina / Hijaz and glorious area well. At that age approximately 28 years. At the time of Abdul Malik bin Sulaiman ruled, he was sworn in as minister of the right and the main adviser to the caliph. At that time he was 33 years old.
Umar bin Abdul Aziz to marry Fatimah bint Abdul Malik ibn Marwan as his wife. Fatimah bint Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan was the daughter of Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan. Similarly, the four brothers had all of the caliph, Al-Walid Sulayman, Al Yazid, and Hisham. When Fatimah groom to Umar bin Abdul Aziz, at that time Omar was like most people acting not as a candidate for the caliphate.
Appointment of Umar bin Abdul Aziz as Caliph
Top testament issued by the Caliph Sulayman bin Abdul Malik, Umar bin Abdul Aziz was appointed as the Caliph at the age of 37 years. He was inaugurated as the Caliph after the death of Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik, but he does not like to inauguration. Then he gave orders that call the people crowded to establish worship. If they all had gathered, he expressed his wake. Then he spoke of praise to Allah and the Prophet berselawat then he said:
"O all mankind! I have been tested to hold this job without asking for the views than I do in advance and not also demand than I am and not dealt with the Muslims. Now I cancel baiah that you gave to me and choose a Caliph who you blow over. "
Suddenly the crowd in unison say:
"We have chosen thee, O Commander of the Faithful, and we also subsided to you. By the way perintahlah us with goodness and blessing. "
Then he gave orders to the people crowded to be cautious, ascetic to the wealth of the world and encourage them to cintakan hereafter then he began telling them: "O all mankind! Who are obedient to God, he shall be obeyed and who are disobedient to God, he is not obliged to be obeyed by any one. O all mankind! Obey me as I obey God in directing you, and if I was disobedient to God, do not any one obey me. " After that he came down from the pulpit.
Umar (may Allaah have mercy) never gather a collection of Jurists and scholars and then he said to them: "I gather you all to ask opinions about the case related to that taken by despotic thing still be together with family am I?" Then they said: 'O Commander of the Faithful! case is not applicable during the reign of tyranny and sin ye shall be borne by the person who makes you wrong.
"However Umar was not satisfied with the answers to the liver is otherwise, he received a collection of opinions than others, including his own son, Abdul Malik, who said to him:" I am of the opinion that he should be returned to original owners as you know it. Had you not return it, you will bear the sins together with the people who take it are wrong. "Umar complacent heart to hear these opinions, then he would restore the original thing taken by despotic to the original owners.
After Umar bin Abdul Aziz was appointed as the caliph and Commander of the Faithful, 'Umar asked the option to Fatima, wife of the beloved.
Umar said to him, "Dear wife, I hope you pick one between the two."
Fatima asked her husband, "Choosing what, dear husband?"
Umar ibn Abd al-Azz explains, "Choosing between gold diamond jewelry that you wear with Umar bin Abdul Aziz is there with you."
Fatimah said, "By Allah, I did not choose the companion is more precious than you, O Commander of the Faithful. This is the gold jewelry and all jewelry. "
Then the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz received all the jewelry and handed it over to the treasury, the State Treasury of the Muslims. While Umar bin Abdul Aziz and his family eat ordinary food, ie bread and a little salt.
After becoming caliph, he changed a few things are more similar to the feudal system. Among the early changes that do are:
1) eliminate Saidina diatribe against Ali ibn Abu Talib and his family called in a sermon Friday sermon, and was replaced with a few pieces of the holy verses of the Koran
2) take back the treasure-abused by a family treasure and return it to the treasury Caliph
3) to fire employees who are not proficient, abuse of power and improper employee who was inaugurated as the effect of Khalifah family
4) eliminate the personal servants of the Caliph be carried out by the Caliph as the previous. This allows him free associate with the commoners without obstacle unlike the first caliph personally have bodyguards and soldiers, soldiers who guard the palace that causes people's hard to meet.
In addition, he is very focused on the virtues of the poor people where he also had to raise wages so that workers have equal civil service salaries.
He also place great religious appreciation among people who have been negligent with the luxury world. Caliph umar has ordered his people to establish a berjammah prayers and mosques used as a place to learn God's law is valid in the age as Rasulullah SAW and the Khilafat 'Ar-Rashideen. King also directed Muhammad b Abu Bakr Al-Hazni in Mecca in order to collect and compile-Hadith Hadith Raulullah SAW. He also narrated the hadith from a number of other Successors and many Hadith scholars who narrated the hadith than him.
In the field of science besides, he has directed the Islamic scholar to translate the books of medical and various fields of science from the language of Greek, Latin and Siryani into Arabic so they can be studied by Muslims.
In the Islamic da'wah confirmed again, he has brought 10 people to Islamic law experts to North Africa and brought some preachers to the kings of India, Turkey and the Berbers in North Africa to invite them to Islam. Besides, he has cleared the payment Jizya imposed upon those who do not practice Islam with the hope that will embrace Islam crowded.
Caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz who has made famous with the justice administration of justice as a virtue. He wanted all people with justice be served regardless of race, rank order may walk with perfect justice. His struggle for justice that is equal justice in the age of her grandfather, the Caliph Umar Al-Khatab.
In his reign, the more powerful kingdoms not insurrection Umaiyyah depths, less applicable fraud, people receive reasonable care and services to wealthy full treasury Zakat because people no longer accept alms. People are already rich or at least want their own self-sufficient. In the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz ra, troops of the Muslims had reached the door of Paris in the west and China in the east. At that time the power of government in Portugal and Spain under his control.
He died in 110 Hijra. He reigned for only two years five months. After his death, the Caliphate was replaced by the law, Yazid bin Abdul Malik.
Muhammad bin Ali bin Al-Husin said may Allaah have mercy on him: "You have to realize that every people has a prominent person and a prominent figure among the Umayyad dynasty was Umar bin Abdul Aziz, he will be resurrected on the Day of Judgement as if he will one berasingan congregation. "
There are a lot of history and Athar the friends who told me about the highest noble. Among them are:
1) At-Tirmidhi narrated that 'Umar Al-Khatab has said: "From my son (zuriatku) will be born a man who resemble in terms of courage and will fukfilling world with justice"
2) From Zayd ibn Aslam bahawa Anas bin Malik has said: "I was never a priest behind the congregation after the death of the Prophet SAW which is equal prayer imam prayer Prophet but rather than Umar bin Abdul Aziz and he was at that time was governor of Medina"
3) Al-Walid ibn Muslim told a man from Khurasan bahaa has said: "I have several times heard voices coming in my dream, which reads:" If a brave from the Bani Marwan was appointed Caliph, give him baiah he is the leader fair "." Then I looked forward to 'Umar ibn Abdul Aziz became caliph, I will get it and give baiah him. "
4) Qais ibn Jabir said: 'Comparison of Umar bin Abdul Aziz in the side of the Bani Ummaiyyah like the believers among the family of Pharaoh "
5) Hassan al-Qishab has said: "I saw a wolf bred with a group of goats at the time of Caliph Umar ibn Aziz"
6) 'Umar ibn Asid has said: "By Allah,' Umar ibn Aziz did not die so comes a man with a wealth of drift and the man said to the crowd:" Take this treasure as much as what you want ". But that would not accept it (kerana all the already wealthy) and Umar had indeed made the people rich "
7) 'Atha' has said: "Umar Abdul Aziz collect jurists' every night. They remember the commemoration of one another about the death and qiamat days, then they are both crying out of fear of Allah, as if there jenayah ( A dead body) between them. "
And Allaah knows best ...