By : Achmad Imam Safii, S.Sos.I
When the reign of Islam after al-Khilafat 'ar-Rashideen. Umayyad dynasty continues the tradition of the kingdoms of pre-Islamic Middle East. This attitude invites harsh criticism and opposition, especially from Khawarij and Shiite groups. Business suppress opposition groups continue to run simultaneously with efforts to expand Islamic territory, to North Africa and Spain.
The emergence of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs
Umayyads is one of the families of the Quraish tribe. Umayyad descent ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf, a respected leader of the Quraish tribe. Umayyad compete with his uncle, Abdul Manaf Hashim bin (1464), in fight Quraiys honor and leadership society. Umayyad judged to have adequate requirements to become a leader and respected by society. He comes from a rich aristocratic family and had ten sons. In pre-Islamic era, the man who has three advantages that are entitled to the honor and power.
Most of the Umayyad family members opposed the Prophet Muhammad that have submitted to Islam, after the Prophet Muhammad moved from Mecca to Medina and managed to gain adherents in the city, the Umayyads hostility has not ended. They led the Quraysh of Mecca to oppose and fight against the Prophet and his followers. War broke out several times, but they did not succeed to defeat the Prophet SAW.
Umayyad hostilities ended after the Prophet SAW and his followers succeeded in entering the city of Makkah (year 8 H/630 M). Feel unable to resist the Umayyads finally surrendered to the Prophet SAW and willing to convert to Islam. Umayyads considered Islam a rear entrance. Once converted to Islam, they show loyalty and dedication towards the religion. In every war undertaken by Muslims for instance, they appear with the spirit of heroism, as if to compensate for the delay they entered Islam by doing great service to Islam.
Because a good attitude, is among those who are entrusted to occupy important positions. Mu'awiyyah ibn Abu Sufyan (21 SH / 602 M - 60 H / 600 M), for example at the time of Prophet SAW was appointed as the author of revelation and at the time of Caliph Umar ibn Khattab (SH 42 / 581 M - 23 H / 644 M) was elected at 641 years as governor in Syria. In the reign of Uthman ibn Affan (47 SH / 576 M - 35 H / 656 M). The Umayyads also got a lot of advantages, of gifts and positions, power stretching from Syria to the Mediterranean Coast. He used this period to prepare and lay a foundation establishing a dynasty. Expectations were higher open after Uthman ibn Affan in suicide in the year 656 by the rebels who opposed the policy of nepotism and abuse of Baitul Mal property for private and family.
When Ali ibn Abi Talib (603 AD - 40 H / 661 AD), who was appointed by the friend of the Prophet in Medina as the successor Caliph Uthman, ordered to deliver Umayyad position, he refused. On the contrary, he even accuse Ali was involved in the assassination of Uthman, or at least protect the rebels who protect it. Mu'awiyyah stance against Ali in rebellion against the government viewed as legitimate and must be fought until the disobedient again, until finally Ali and his troops set off to fight Mu'awiyyah in Syria. Before the battle was going on, Ali sent a delegation, sent a letter to Mu'wiyyah admit it and are united with him. But the effort failed and there was almost won the battle and Ali, but 'Amr bin As Mu'awiyyah lifted from the Koran with a spear as a symbol of peace.
Both parties agree to elect a Hakam (broker) as a negotiator and a search path for dispute resolution. Parties Mu'awiyyah choose from Amr bin Ash and Ali, Abu Musa al-'Asy'ari (Companions of the Prophet SAW, d. 72/53 H) approved the majority of the population of Iraq. Tahkim ended with disappointment on the part of Ali's. When Abu Musa Ali announces fall from office, Amr bin Ash immediately agreed and set Mu'awiyyah as caliph. Mu'awiyyah Tahkim obviously profitable, and Ali was a split from the army who called Khawarij. And Khawarij believes that tahkim been involved in a big sin to kill mandatory / repent. The plan was not entirely successful, Ibn Muljam (followers Khawarij) 661 only managed to kill Ali when Ali Mosque Kuffah. The Mu'awiyyah and Amr bin Ash was survivors of the plan.
The Caliph Umayyad Dynasty
Entering the powers that be Mu'awiyyah early Umayyad power, democratic government that turned into Monarchiheridatis (hereditary monarchy). Umayyad power was about 90 years old who became caliph in the Umayyad dynasty came from two families, namely family Harb Abi al-As. Caliphs of the Umayyad Dynasty This is Mu'awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan (661-680 AD). Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705 AD), al-Walid ibn Abdul Malik (705-715 AD), Umar ibn al-Aziz (717-720 CE) and Hashim ibn Abd al-Malik (724-748 AD) .
Harb Family Governance
Conditions was the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty Harb who officially became caliph in the year 41 AH Muawiyyah known as the leader of the firm and hard, but full of tolerance and open the chest. Nature thus paved the way for Muawiyyah to strengthen the political position.
In controlling the government, Mu'awiyyah supported by several major helper in the overcoming of the empire, including Amr ibn As (governor of Egypt); Mugirah bin Shucba (Governor Kuffah) Eurafat river town west (Iraq); Abihi ibn Ziyad (the governor of Persia ); Ubaidillah ibn Ziyad (governor of Basra) until his death in 680 Muawiyyah.
Mu'awiyyah brilliant period pertained. He succeeded in creating a domestic security and deliver country and its people to prosperity and wealth to the region include the expansion of North Africa, of Khurasan and Bukhara (Turkestan) after crossing the river Oxus.
Family Governance Abi al-As
In accordance with the testament Marwan, Abdul Malik succeeded him as caliph. Abdul Malik managed to reunite the Umayyad territory according to his father's will which is controlled by Abdullah bin Zubair, who announced himself as the caliph and the Shiites to quell the rebellion and insubordination Kharijites.
Expansion to the east on a large scale followed by Abdul Malik as the successor of Muawiyyah. He succeeded in crossing the river Oxus and can be successfully lowered Balkh, Bukhara, Khawarijzm, Ferhana and Samarkandi. Even to the Indian army and can competently Baukhistan, Sina and Punjab to Malta.
In addition to the expansion of Islam, Abdul Malik, also left many services, such as changing the currency of the Byzantine and Persian are used in areas dominated by Islam in the year 659 was also able to make improvements and government administration imposed Arabic as the official language.
Walid bin Abdul Malik (705-715 AD)
When Abdul Malik bin Marwan died in 86 H / 705 AD Walid bin Abdul Malik, his son succeeded him as caliph. He has the nature of willpower and ability carry out the development. He built a home for people with disabilities, are also building roads, factories, government buildings, and magnificent mosques. Walid showed the triumph of the reign of the Umayyad dynasty. His rule was expanding into Spain in the West and Sina (India) in the East.
Umar ibn Abd Aziz (717-720 CE)
Umar bin Abdul Aziz inaugurated in the year 1999 H / 717 AD He is known for its simplicity, fairness and his wisdom. During his reign, Umar perform various repair and construction of public services, like improvement of agricultural land, digging new wells, an inn for travelers and others.
Against parties who opposed the Umayyad dynasty, as Khawarij and Shiite groups, Umar be soft. They will not be fought, but invited berdikusi and foster mutual understanding he launched the Islamic da'wah and persuatif wise manner until the population is Muslim yet entered into Islam, also protect the inhabitants of Egypt, Syria and Persia, which existed as the Zimmi (non-Muslim citizens residing in territory of Islam) with the liability to pay Jizya / tax.
Hashim ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743 AD)
When the caliphate, Hashim faced many domestic problems that consume their attention. Even in this era came a new power which becomes a serious challenge for the government of the Umayyad dynasty, that power comes from the Bani Hashim faction supported by Mawali. Political turmoil in Iraq, especially Khorasan, pushing it several times to replace the governor in this area. Nevertheless, not too quiet Khurasan from the riots. Arab tribal sentiment North and South is the cause of the collapse of the Umayyad dynasty. Although the actual Hashim ibn Malik is a strong and skilled Caliph. Finally, in 750 AD, the Umayyad daulah ousted Abbas' alliance with the Bani Abu Muslim al-Khurasani pioneered by the descendants of al-Abbas ibn al-Muttalib. And this movement is fully supported by the Bani Hashim and Shiite groups as well as the Mawali.
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